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The authentic crop circles
cannot be made by man

Scientific analyses

Multiple scientific analyses were made which have shown some notable modifications in the biological properties of the cereals in comparison to witness samples taken outside the formation :

  • node elongations,
  • water content reduced in these nodes,
  • perforation or bursting of some nodes,
  • significantly improved germination power (the sown seeds give stronger plants, and produce themselves more seeds), when the formation appeared in a ripe crop,
  • with other samples, the germination power on the contrary reduced (but always significantly in comparison to the witness samples), when the formation was formed in a young crop.

Other analyses rigorously conducted by scientific researchers have shown some physical and chemical modifications of the soils, inside the formations :

  • amazing growth of the crystalline structure of some constituents of clay in the soil inside the formation, in comparison to witness samples taken outside,
  • strange deposits of a white powder in the centre of some circular formations in Netherlands. This powder was analysed by a laboratory of the university of Amsterdam, it was made of magnesium hydrocarbonate,
  • unusual concentration of meteoritic dust (iron oxides). These particles exist in the atmosphere, at a very low concentration. Inside some crop circles, contents were found until several hundreds higher than outside, which shows that these particles were attracted and concentrated by the application of a strong magnetic field when the formation was created.

First real scientific research was led by a team of three researchers by the initiative of W. Levengood (BLT team) since 1989. These American researchers have collected samples coming from crop circles from different countries in order to study them, and have published their results in different specialized scientific journals (3-4-5). The results on growth anomalies have been confirmed by other researchers (6).

These scientific analyses, even if they haven't solved the nature of the phenomenon, have led to some very significant conclusions that bring out the « strange » characteristics of the phenomenon. Obviously, these modifications of the physical and biological properties translate significantly and indisputably that the techniques implemented to make these crop circles have nothing to do with the techniques, completely rudimentary, habitually used by human-counterfeiters. Indeed, the only method that the human authors of the tricks know how to use consists of crushing the stems to the ground in front of them with a simple plank (held with the help of cords), or from a roll that they push in front of them or that they pull : this rudimentary technique can certainly lead neither to physical nor biological modifications of the plants.

However, these scientific analyses are evidently difficult to implement and cannot be used to control the totality of the crop circles.

A certain number of visual observations that one can do on the ground allows any observer to distinguish certainly the true crop circles from eventual tricks.

The wheat stems bent at an angle

Laid down wheat stems - Lockeridge - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran

It's necessary at first to know that the wheat (or barley) stems are constituted such that they are formed from several segments connected by three nodes, at different heights, the first being very near to the ground. These nodes give rigidity to the stems, and allow them to grow vertically.

Laid down rape stems - Avebury Avenue - May 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran

In the majority of the crop circles, the wheat (or other grains) stems are simply folded very close from the ground in order to be lying down horizontally in a given direction (photos 1 and 2). The bends are made 2 or 3 centimetres above the level of the ground (not necessarily at the level of the first node as in the case of wheat which has often been written by mistake). The stems are neither cut nor crushed. These bends do not prevent the ears from growing and will be able to be harvested normally at the desired time. It suffices that the height of the harvester's blades be adapted. Therefore, the experiment shows that a very small proportion of seeds are lost.

Laid down wheat stems - Honeystreet - 2011
Photo © Daniel Harran
Laid down rape stems
Photo © Umberto Molinaro
Laid down flax stems
Laid down corn stems

The rows of straightened stems along the tractor
tracks, in the zones of flattened stems

Row of green straightened stems - Barbury Castle - July 2006
Photo © Daniel Harran
Rows of green straightened stems - All Cannings - June 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran
Row of green straightened stems - South field, Alton Priors - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran

All the grain fields are marked by these double and parallel lines left by the tractor wheels when planting the crops in springtime. In general, wheat (for example) has not been sown in these lines and the earth remains bare (which allows by the way the visitors to enter the field without damaging the crops in walking in these tracks). However the wheat seeds that have been sown along these tracks often grow on compacted dirt. Accordingly, the germination of these seeds is going to experience a certain delay in relation to the others. We can indeed observe in the beginning of summer that some of the stems of wheat are shorter and still green, while others are higher and golden all over.

We observe often that in the interior of a crop circle, these late growth ears have not been flattened on the ground contrary to those surrounding them (photos 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11) and remain straightened towards the sky. We obtain thus rows of vertical ears along the tractor tracks, inside a zone where all the ears are extended to the ground, what can appear as an imperfection in the drawing.

This phenomenon that seems strange at first sight, can, in fact, be easily explained.

Rows of green straightened stems - South field, Alton Priors - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran

The farmers have indeed noticed that this phenomenon appears also when, in a field, the wheat is flattened by a strong gust of wind as that often happens. The wheat is then flattened to the ground by the wind, but without any pure geometric motif being drawn. Yet, even in this case where the cause is natural, we are able to observe that the late growth ears can remain straightened and intact, which signifies very simply that they are more resistant to the wind force (they are by the way more supple in general, being younger and greener).

We can understand that inside the crop circle also, these late growth ears have been able to resist the applied force in order to bend the stems, because this force has been applied with a minimum intensity so as to act on the wheat in normal growth, but not on those in late growth, that are more supple and resistant.

We can understand also that sometimes the wheat along side of the tractor tracks can be, however, flattened to the ground not by the applied exterior force, but by the adjacent wheat that have been flattened and that have leaned on them (photo 12). The result depends then on the direction in which the stems have been flattened.

Row of straightened stems - Lockeridge - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran
Row of straightened stems - Beckhampton - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran

This observation is a clear recognition and indisputable sign of an authentic crop circle. It is indeed evident that the utilization of a wood plank or a roll in order to bend the stems would have as effect crushing them all without distinction.

The dispersed stems intact in the zones
of the flattened stems

Some dispersed stems remained straightened - All Cannings - June 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran
Unequally laid down stems - Waylands Smithy - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran

In the inside of certain crop circles, and independent of the preceding observation of intact rows along the tractor tracks, we get the impression of a « sloppy job », in the sense that the wheat (or barley) stems are not all flattened to the ground, a certain proportion remained intact and nearly vertical. In fact, we must be wary of believing that this unachieved aspect or sloppiness is associated with a human involvement. The use of a mechanical tool (plank or roll) does not indeed leave a certain proportion of the ears standing. On the contrary this observation is the proof that it is not a mechanical force that has been applied (otherwise said this is not a human way), and translates simply that the intensity of this force was insufficient to bend all the ears, so that a small proportion amongst them, the most resistant, remain standing (photos 13 and 14).

Dead and stuck insects on the stems

Il est possible parfois de découvrir à l'intérieur des agroglyphes des mouches (ou d'autres insectes) mortes et collées sur les tiges, le corps desséché et les ailes ouvertes. On peut trouver aussi des hérissons morts, le corps complètement desséché. Cette observation tend à montrer que ces insectes ou ces animaux ont été surpris par une très forte élévation de température, qui aurait été de courte durée puisque les céréales n'ont pas été endommagées.

Effectively, we think in general that the stems have been bent at their base after they have been softened in order to not be broken, and that this softening has been provoked by a very focused and of short duration rise in temperature (some tests realized in laboratory by the BLT team headed by W. Levengood seem indeed to confirm this interpretation). We can understand, while avoiding all damage of the crops, that this rise in temperature is regulated to the minimum, but that in consequence a small proportion of the more resistant stems are less softened and therefore, less bent. However, this observation of dried out flies and hedgehogs is not compatible with a human mechanical action. It is still a proof of the authentic nature of the crop circle.

The energy of the site

Parallel rods, before going into a more energetic place
Photo © Daniel Harran
The rods open themselves, when going into a more energetic place
Photo © Daniel Harran

The crop circles emit a subtle energy. We can feel it directly in our physical body ; certain people are however more sensitive to it than others. It suffices for that to take a few seconds to centre oneself, and to become conscious of the subtle sensations that appear at the level of the palms of the hands for example, of the feet or of the head. Logically, this energy is more intense the more the formation is recent, and fades with time.

This energy can be measured with the help of a pendulum. It is also very easy to put in evidence by using parallel dowsing sticks. These dowsing sticks amplify in a spectacular way the variation of energy when one penetrates or when one leaves the formation. The intensity of this subtle energy is still a signature of an authentic formation. We can observe some analogous variations of energies, that is to say as strong variations in the megalithic sites (photos 15 and 16).

Absence of passage tracks on the ground

Isolated off-centre circle - Yatesbury - June 2007
Photo © Lucy Pringle
Three isolated circles - Stanton Bridge - July 2008
Photo © Lucy Pringle

Even if the majority of the crop circles measure several tens of meters (or even several hundred), and cover then several tractor lines in which one can circulate without leaving marks on its path, it happens often that they include little motifs that are integrally situated between the tractor tracks. If a human being had been the author of this work, he would have then necessarily left some marks, crushing the wheat in order to access and realize theses motifs. Yet, the first visits in an authentic site don't show such marks (photos 17 and 18).

The variety of represented motifs

Since the represented motifs are no longer simply circular (end of the 1980's), we can observe a great variety in these motifs because, in reality... there has never been two the same while their complexity continues to grow from year to year, and that the number of observed crop circles is several thousands.

This complexity is in fact an answer to incredulous observers : it is evident that these « sculptures in the fields » cannot be realized by man without being caught in the act.

Indeed, certain drawings in the field are sometimes realized for advertising purposes, and can be relatively elaborate. But their realization requires the participation of a team of several persons who labour openly for several days. And the technique used for laying the stems on the ground is always and necessarily simple, because man is incapable of bending the stems for example, or of making all the effects that we can observe elsewhere. Yet, ...

... the crop circles are realized in a few seconds,
without a visible presence !

Stonehenge - Crop circle formed during the day in less of 30 minutes - July 1996
Photo © Lucy Pringle
Detail of the crop circle named "Julia set" - Stonehenge - July 1996
Photo © Lucy Pringle

Even if the mystery that covers the crop circles phenomenon holds principally on the fact that these works are realized almost always without the authors being seen by men, however, it happens that the significant number of observations that permit us to evaluate the necessary duration of their formation has grown. Better : a non-negligible number of people have been able to directly see a crop circle being created, and have been able to witness it.

The first significant testimony is that of the two airplane pilots knowledgeable about the crop circle phenomenon, which by day in 1996, passed two times above the Stonehenge site. The first time they didn't notice anything unusual in the fields ; the second time, a half an hour later, a magnificent crop circle was there, very close to the megalithic site, formed without the authors being seen by anyone amongst all the visitors present on this site ! Of course, it couldn't be made by man (photos 19 and 20).

Several tens of « lucky » observers were able to directly see a crop circle form itself before their eyes, and their testimonies are all concordant (see specialized books on the subject (2-7-8-9-10-11)) : it manifests in a time in the order of 10 seconds, without any presence having been detected ! Sometimes, the existence of « balls of light » in rapid movement above the field has been associated with the realization of the crop circles.

Bending methods always more complex

Example of weaving - "The basket" - Bishop Canning - August 1999
Photo © Ulrich Kox
Straightened sheaf at the center of a circle - Milk Hill - July 2006
Photo © Daniel Harran
Straightened sheaf at the center of a circle, around the only bad grass of the field... - Avebury Manor - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran
Example of weaving - Uffington - July 2006
Photo © Daniel Harran

At the same time that the represented motifs become more and more complex each year, we can notice that the bending methods are also more and more sophisticated, even if certain formations remain relatively simple :

  • We can observe, for example, a checkerboard effect, with some zones where the stems are laid down in a certain direction, while elsewhere the stems are laid down in a perpendicular direction (photos 21 and 22).
  • In a circular zone where the stems have been laid down, we can observe very often the centre is emphasized by a bunch of stems remaining vertical ; this bunch can be simple or sometimes intertwined by a few other stems from the outside (photos 23, 24 and 25).
Straightened sheaf at the center of a circle - West Woods - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran
Cone of wheat ears at the center of a star - Milk Hill - July 2006
Photo © Daniel Harran
  • Other times, the centre can be marked by a bouquet of bent stems which the ears have been folded in a way that makes a cone shape (photo 26).
  • (photos 27 and 28).
Packet of twisted stems at the middle of height - East Field - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran
Packet of twisted stems at the middle of height - East Field - July 2008
Photo © Christophe Esti val
  • When the central circle of a formation is of a large diameter, it can be itself realized in a complex way, composed of several parts where the stems are alternatively laid down according to a circular and radial direction (photo 29).
Wheat stems laid down in alternatively circular and radial directions - Beckhampton - July 2008
Photo © Daniel Harran
Wheat stems laid down in radial directions with undulations - Avebury Manor - July 2008
Photo © Nick Nicholson
  • Or, in a large circle, the stems can be flattened and oriented from the centre towards the exterior, but in creating some very regular waves (photo 30).

It is evident once again that these sophisticated and properly implemented bending methods cannot be attributed to humans.

Off-center circles

Isolated off-centre circle - Yatesbury - June 2007
Photo © Lucy Pringle

For a few years, we often observe circles, whether isolated or integrated to some complex figures that are clearly off-centre, in this sense that the stems of the grains are laid down around a point that is clearly distinct from the geometric centre (photo 17). This is very significant because the only technique used by the counterfeiters to trace the circle is planting a pile in its geometric centre, then connecting to this pile a cord, turning around with a plank. The ears are then necessarily crushed around the geometric centre.

All the preceding observations show that a great number (for the least) of the crop circles are realized by some causes or some authors who cannot be confused with the human beings, and which asks then the problem of their origin. By whom, or by what have they been made ?

In reality, and contrarily to what has sometimes been written in the 1990's, it seems that the quasi-totality of the actually observed crop circles is authentic. In any case, even if a certain (small) fraction is indeed the result of the activity of certain human beings of doubtful motivations or for publicity stunts, the only ones worthy of our attention are the authentic crop circles, that are not made by man but they address themselves to man.


2 :  Colin ANDREWS et Stephen SPIGNESI - Crop Circles, signes et contacts : nouvelles révélations (Ed. Exclusif), p 65.

3 :  W.C. LEVENGOOD - Anatomical anomalies in crop formations plants - Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 92 (pp 356-363), 1994.

4 :  W.C. LEVENGOOD, J. BURKE - Semi-molten meteoric iron associated with a crop formation - Journal of Scientific Exploration, vol. 9, n° 2 (pp 191-199), 1995.

5 :  W.C. LEVENGOOD, N. P. TALBOTT - Dispersion of energies in worlwide crop formations - Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 105 (pp 615-624), 1999.

6 :  Eltjo HASELHOFF - Les cercles dans les blés et leurs mystères : recherches scientifiques et légendes (Ed. Favre).

7 :  Michael HESEMANN - Messages, l'énigme des « crops-circles » (Ed. Trajectoire).

8 :  Werner ANDERHUB et Hans Peter ROTH - Le Mystère des Crop Circles (Ed. Véga).

9 :  Andreas MULLER - Crop Circles - Géométrie des cercles de culture, étude des phénomènes, recherches (Ed. Véga).

10 :  Umberto MOLINARO - Des Cercles dans la nuit - Une enquête inédite sur le phénomène des Crop Circles (Ed. Equilibre).

11 :  Lucy PRINGLE - Crop Circles - The Pitkin Guide (en anglais).

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